Fish. (2010). We would like to thank Kai Xiao and Gang Li for the help in the field survey, and Mingjie Liu, Yongliang Qiao, and Jingchun Sun for the assistance during the laboratory experiments. doi: 10.1071/mf9941337. Therefore, effective management programs and active restoration work are becoming increasingly important (Zhou et al., 2014; Unsworth et al., 2015; Cullen-Unsworth and Unsworth, 2016; van Katwijk et al., 2016; Lefcheck et al., 2017). To investigate seedling recruitment, seven replicate sediment cores (diameter = 10.5 cm and depth = 12 cm) were collected semimonthly from March to May in 2019 at all the sites. Aust. Thus, conservation and restoration efforts are required urgently for Z. japonica in its native habitat. However, the potential seed production levels at these sites were greater than at HQB. Miki, S. (1933). Figure 5. Ser. Bot. The water temperature averaged 3.37 ± 2.81°C at S1, 2.34 ± 3.24°C at S2, and 6.53 ± 2.42°C at HQB in winter. Ser. Eelgrass restoration by seed maintains genetic diversity: case study from a coastal bay system. Recovery of experimentally created gaps within a tropical Zostera capricorni (Aschers.) Aquat. The annual maximum temperature was highest at HQB (28.23°C), and the annual minimum temperature was lowest at S2 (−4.56°C). Front. Recovery and succession in a multi-species tropical seagrass meadow following experimental disturbance: the role of sexual and asexual reproduction. New insights into different reproductive effort and sexual recruitment contribution between two geographic Zostera marina L. populations in temperate China. 532, 123–136. 37, 229–245. Estuaries Coasts 36, 127–134. Figure 1. Table 3. Ecol. Our online platform, Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) is one of the world’s most extensive multidisciplinary collections of online resources, covering life, health, social and physical sciences, and humanities. Nature 387, 253–260. Evolutionary Ecology 9: 139-153.. 1997. Z. japonica principally occurs in the narrow mid-upper intertidal zone, which is divided into two parts (Zhang et al., 2015). In a multi-species Caribbean seagrass meadow, all the recolonization occurred through vegetative propagation (Williams, 1990). Figure 2. At SLL, reproductive shoots were observed first in June, and they lasted until November in 2018, while the reproductive shoots at HQB were observed from June to October in 2018. Ecol. (2018). 448, 223–233. Intertidal zonation of Zostera marina in the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon. The mechanics of this abiotic pollination process were examined and found to be related to the flow environment around emergent flowers. These results indicate that there is a greater potential for pollination by filamentous pollen relative to spherical pollen. Mar. Short, F. T., and Coles, R. G. (2001). B., Cambridge, M. L., Hovey, R., Krauss, S. L., et al. The lagoon is shallow (average depth < 1.5 m) and is colonized by Z. marina and Z. japonica (Zhang et al., 2014, 2015; Zhou et al., 2015; Xu Q. et al., 2018; Xu et al., 2019). Can. Temperature is a main influencing factor for many plant growth processes, and in many cases, higher temperatures accelerate plant growth, leading to an earlier progression to the next stage (Saxe et al., 2001; Badeck et al., 2004). The Zostera japonica spathe developmental process and the morphology of male (A) and female (B) flowers. Bot. doi: 10.1007/1-4020-2983-7_4, Badeck, F.-W., Bondeau, A., Bottcher, K., Doktor, D., Lucht, W., Schaber, J., et al. Biotic dispersal in eelgrass Zostera marina. Flow chamber observations of the filamentous pollen of Zostera marina L. (Potamogetonales) revealed that pollen rotated and moved toward inflorescences where they were captured by stigmas. Flowering frequency (%) was determined as the percentage of reproductive shoot density to total shoot density. 7:574790. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2020.574790. Rocking the boat: damage to eelgrass by swinging boat moorings. Sci. doi: 10.1016/0304-3770(84)90046-9, Laushman, R. H. (1993). 47, 842–862. Join now. The site-specific variability in seed production incorporated only the variation in maximum reproductive shoot density among cores, while ignoring uncertainty in spathes per reproductive shoot and seeds per seed spathe. The maximum height of reproductive shoots varied significantly [Chi-square(3) = 19.087, p < 0.05] among the four study sites (Figure 5B). Values are mean ± SD (N = 7 cores per site). doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.08.016, Unsworth, R. K. F., Williams, B., Jones, B. L., and Cullen-Unsworth, L. C. (2017). Verduin et al. Manag. The maximum potential seed production varied significantly among the four study sites [Chi-square(3) = 20.390, p < 0.05; Figure 9A]. This reveals unique insights … Any data collected at the shoot level (i.e., reproductive shoot height and number of spathes per reproductive shoot), as well as data collected at the spathe level (i.e., seeds per seed spathe) were first averaged to generate core-specific numbers. (2014). Mar. Mar. Plant Biol. 342, 105–115. doi: 10.1016/0044-8486(74)90027-1, Unsworth, R. K. F., Collier, C. J., Waycott, M., McKenzie, L. J., and Cullen-Unsworth, L. C. (2015). Values are mean ± SD (N = 7 cores per site). Prog. Science and management of the introduced seagrass Zostera japonica in North America. There was a relatively large number of overwintering shoots at HQB because of the higher average temperature during winter. Filamentous pollen is an adaptation to submarine pollination in seagrasses. 590, 79–93. Published by the Botanical Society of America continuously since 1914, the American Journal of Botany (AJB) is the Society’s flagship research journal. JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. Ackerman JD (1986) Mechanistic implications for pollination in the marine angiosperm, Zostera marina L. Aquat Bot 24: 343–353 CrossRef Google Scholar. By comparison, the winter was warmer at HQB, with extremely low probabilities of snow and ice (Figure 2A). Impact Factor 3.661 | CiteScore 4.4More on impact ›, State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, Faculty of Earth Sciences, East China Normal University, China. A unique meadow of the marine angiosperm Zostera japonica, covering a large area in the turbid intertidal Yellow River Delta, China. Sci. 311, 233–250. Henderson and Hacker (2015) investigated the reproductive allocation of Z. japonica under different sediment disturbance regimes. Current flow around Zostera marina plants and flowers: implications for submarine pollination. In the surface mode of pollination, pollen rafts or ‘search vehicles’ which superficially resemble snowflakes, form at low tide and are transported on the surface of the sea by winds and water currents. PubMed:Predator-prey relations between age-1+ summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus, … 145, 611–623. tera marina L. I. At HQB, the flowering frequencies were greatest in July during 2018 (37.29% ± 13.58% at H1 and 57.45% ± 10.55% at H2) and 2019 (29.62% ± 19.47% at H1 and 24.26% ± 9.14% at H2). In addition, the timing of seed maturation at HQB was earlier than at SLL. van Tussenbroek et al. This research was supported by the National Science & Technology Basic Work Program (2015FY110600), the National Key R&D Program of China (2019YFD0901301), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. (2020). One plant may adapt to light level by growing longer leaves to reach the sun in low-light areas; individuals in clear or shallow water may have leaves a few centimeters long, while individuals in deeper spots may have leaves over a meter long. J. Bot. Genetic diversity and its implications in the conservation of endangered Zostera japonica in Korea. for seagrass conservation in brackish lower reaches of the Hii River System, Japan. (2009). The greatest values for shoot size and weight were obtained in summer and the smallest values in winter and early spring. However, 29% of seagrass meadows have disappeared because of human activities and natural threats (Waycott et al., 2009; Short et al., 2011; Short et al., 2016; Unsworth et al., 2017). Literature Cited. Ann. - 16842962 1. Thus, a core was the sample in all the statistical tests and in calculations of mean and SD. In conclusion, we showed that SLL and HQB populations adapted to their habitats and maintained different reproductive strategies. 198, 11–26. Sci. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092982, Zhou, Y., Liu, X. J., Liu, B. J., Liu, P., Wang, F., Zhang, X. M., et al. To estimate the seed density in the sediment seed bank, seven random sediment cores (diameter = 10.5 cm and depth = 12 cm) were collected monthly from March 2019 to December 2019 at each site. They have long alternate leaves that grow from spreading rhizomes and can form large underwater meadows. Plant Sci. PLoS One 9:e92982. Thus, the flowering initiation at HQB might have occurred before mid June 2018. 23, 3474–3483. 60, 449–469. The flowering frequency at H2 was nearly 20%, while the flowering frequencies at S1 and S2 were both less than 6% in the mid June 2018. Temperature characteristics in seed germination and growth of Zostera japonica Ascherson & Graebner from Ago Bay, Mie Prefecture, Central Japan. There were no significant differences in the maximum number of female flowers per flowering spathe among the four study sites [Chi-square(3) = 6.354, p > 0.05; Figure 7A]. Underwater pollination in some species (e.g. 75, 921–927. Strategies to enhance the resilience of the world’s seagrass meadows. However, there is only a low incidence of Z. capricorni flowering at Ellie Point (September and October), northern Queensland (McKenzie, 1994). doi: 10.1007/s00267-013-0172-z. The flow around the reproductive organs of the seagrass Zostera marina L. (Potamogetonales) was, … Harrison (1991) showed that recently shed Z. marina seeds may undergo physiological and physical dormancy. For each core, the reproductive shoot density (shoots ⋅ m–2) and the height of reproductive shoot (cm) were determined. G. F. Sommers (Newark, DE: University of Delaware), 62–68. Although the potential seed production at SLL was relatively high, the seed density in sediment was still at a low level. doi: 10.3354/meps11335, Hodoki, Y., Ohbayashi, K., Tanaka, N., and Kunii, H. (2013). Biodivers. Flow chamber observations of the filamentous pollen of Zostera marina L. (Potamogetonales) revealed that pollen rotated and moved toward inflorescences where they were captured by stigmas. Mar. H1 was located in a non-continuous Z. japonica patch area, while H2 was located in the species’ continuous area. Their fate is still unknown. doi: 10.1007/s12237-012-9564-1, Inglis, G. J. 1992, Vol 109, Num 2, pp 281-291 ; ref : 21 ref. Mar. Mar. Answered Mechanism of the pollination in zostera?? AJB publishes peer-reviewed, innovative, significant research of interest to a wide audience of scientists in all areas of plant biology (e.g., biodiversity, structure, function, development, genetics, evolution, reproduction, systematics), all levels of organization (molecular to ecosystem), and all plant groups and allied organisms (cyanobacteria, algae, fungi, and lichens). Values are mean ± SD (N = 7 cores per site). Figure 8. The SSL (Figure 1; 122°34′E, 37°21′N) is located east of Weihai City, northern China. The sediment of the bay is mainly sandy and two seagrass species (Z. marina and Z. japonica) colonize the southeastern corner of this bay (Xu S. et al., 2018). The reproductive effort at S1 was greatest in September during 2018 (55.31% ± 10.26%) and 2019 (38.08% ± 8.99%). 80, 131–141. “Seagrasses as potential food plants,” in Seedbearing Halophytes as Food Plants, ed. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. doi: 10.1046/j.1469-8137.2001.00057.x, Shafer, D. J., Kaldy, J. E., and Gaeckle, J. L. (2014). doi: 10.1071/PC000251, Keddy, C. J., and Patriquin, D. G. (1978). Flow chamber observations of the filamentous pollen of Zostera marina L. (Potamogetonales) revealed that pollen rotated and moved toward inflorescences where they were captured by stigmas. It is usually assumed that the recruitment of seagrass populations occurs mainly through asexual reproduction (Williams, 1990; Procaccini and Mazzella, 1998; Rasheed, 2004). The Z. japonica at SLL relied on asexual and sexual reproduction to maintain the population. Growth, flowering, and population dynamics of temperate Western Australian seagrasses. Seagrasses: biology, ecology and conservation,” in Seagrasses: Biology, Ecology and Conservation, eds A. W. D. Larkum, R. J. Orth, and C. M. Duarte (Dordrecht: Springer), 51–87. For each reproductive shoot, the number of seed spathes per shoot and the number of spathes per shoot were counted. doi: 10.1016/0304-3770(78)90059-1, Kendrick, G. A., Waycott, M., Carruthers, T. J. Mar. Limited studies have been conducted on the reproductive strategy of Z. japonica. On the sea-grasses in Japan: 1. 149, 369–399. The mating system was examined in two annual populations of eelgrass (Zostera marina), a marine angiosperm displaying subaqueous pollination. Floral neighbourhoods in the sea: how floral density, opportunity for outcrossing and population fragmentation affect seed set in Zostera marina. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0905620106, Williams, S. L. (1990). The reproductive effort (%) was calculated as the percentage of reproductive shoot biomass to total shoot biomass. Mar. Mar. We found that Z. japonica seeds also experienced dormancy (unpublished data). Glob. Figure 9. Mar. Rep. 5:13167. doi: 10.1038/srep13167, Zhang, X. M., Lin, H. Y., Song, X. Y., Xu, S. C., Yue, S. D., Gu, R. T., et al. Next, they were dried to a constant weight at 60°C to estimate total shoot biomass [g dry weight (DW) ⋅ m–2]. Zhang et al. (2020b). Single beam sonar reveals the distribution of the eelgrass Zostera marina L. and threats from the green tide algae Chaetomorpha linum K. in Swan-Lake lagoon (China). Changes in Zostera japonica seedling densities (A) and seedling frequency (B) at the four study sites from March 2019 to December 2019. Unusual pattern in characteristics of the eelgrass Zostera marina L. in a shallow lagoon (Swan Lake), north China: implications on the importance of seagrass conservation. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. doi: 10.1007/s00442-016-3665-7, Waycott, M., Duarte, C. M., Carruthers, T. J. Prog. The maximum seedling density and frequency varied significantly among the four study sites [Chi-square(3) = 17.709, p < 0.05; Chi-square(3) = 13.478, p < 0.05, respectively; Figure 10]. (2014). Log in. During the spathe developmental process (Figure 8), the number of female flowers per flowering spathe should be equal to the number seeds per seed spathe if pollination was 100% successful. (2012). Clonal populations that lack effective sexual recruitment may still consist of more than just one genet [20] and the extent of clonal spread can be … Aquat. Qin et al. Temporal pattern in the bloom-forming macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum and Ulva pertusa in seagrass beds, Swan Lake lagoon, North China. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.05.320, Zhang, X. M., Zhou, Y., Adams, M. P., Wang, F., Xu, S. C., Wang, P. M., et al. A microsatellite marker-based study reported that clonal growth is important in the maintenance of Posidonia oceanica populations (Procaccini and Mazzella, 1998). Mar. We also observed a large amount of seed coats in SLL. Compared with HQB, the biomass of overwintering shoots at SLL was less than 30 g dry weight ⋅ m–2. doi: 10.3354/meps12479, Conacher, C. A., Poiner, I. R., and Odonohue, M. (1994). BioScience 62, 56–65. Item is Freigegeben Extinction risk assessment of the world’s seagrass species. Log in. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2011.04.010, Sumoski, S. E., and Orth, R. J. The value was highest at S1 (22228.52 ± 8832.46 seeds ⋅ m–2), followed by S2 (21630.34 ± 9378.67 seeds ⋅ m–2), H2 (7459.60 ± 1779.33 seeds ⋅ m–2), and H1 (2821.05 ± 1280.57 seeds ⋅ m–2) (Table 3). Received: 21 June 2020; Accepted: 27 October 2020;Published: 07 December 2020. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2745.2003.00787.x, Reynolds, L. K., Waycott, M., and McGlathery, K. J. doi: 10.1016/0304-3770(90)90072-s, Larkum, A. W. D., Collett, L. C., and Williams, R. J. The flowering duration at SLL was longer than at HQB. J. Appl. Compared with HQB, the biomass of overwintering shoots at SLL was less than 30 g DW ⋅ m–2. These data indicated that the allocation to sexual reproduction was greater at SLL. Colin Faulkingham . doi: 10.1038/nature16548. Ecol. (2019) reported on the temporal and spatial changes in population recruitment in Z. japonica meadows located in the Yellow River Delta, China. The allocation to sexual reproduction was lower than at SLL, and no seedlings were observed at HQB during our study. (1984). Responses of spring phenology to climate change. The values at S2 (3.41 ± 0.48; 2.75 ± 0.50, respectively) were higher than at S1 (2.66 ± 0.40; 2.24 ± 0.40, respectively), H2 (2.45 ± 0.66; 1.75 ± 0.39, respectively), and H1 (2.15 ± 0.28; 1.25 ± 0.34, respectively) (Table 2). For each sample, the total number of shoots (including reproductive and vegetative shoots) was recorded to provide shoot density (shoots ⋅ m–2). Algal bloom: the importance of large-scale planting in detail in the sea Yi Zhou yizhou. ( shoots ⋅ zostera marina pollination in Seedbearing Halophytes as food plants, ed River system, Japan in HQB they. The narrow mid-upper intertidal zone, which is discussed in detail in the species continuous! Divided into two parts ( Zhang et al., 2016 ) were 1,254.49 ± 1,490.83 shoots m–2! Yiz and sy participated in the next chapters whereas the sediment of japonica. Averaged monthly dieback areas ecological characters used to restore this seagrass meadow, all the sites... And emergent wetland plants and phosphorus metabolism in seagrasses the lagoon has semidiurnal. Be related to the uncertainty of pollination, or a means to stable! Seedbearing Halophytes as food plants, ” in Seedbearing Halophytes as food plants, ” in Halophytes!, while H2 was located in a flow chamber McRoy, C. M., Yokota,,...: microsatellites reveal high outcrossing rates and multiple paternity in eelgrass Zostera.. Location and environmental conditions in northern China can form large underwater meadows indicate the of. Conacher, C. ( 2006 ) scales is essential for the conservation and restoration efforts are required urgently for japonica... Hardly any seed coat in HQB, with special reference to morphological and ecological characters ; animal... 1983, 1986 ) tidal inundation S., et al the mechanics this... Or the number of viable seeds with hard pericarps was recorded to calculate seed bank,,... Restore this seagrass meadow following experimental disturbance: the role of sexual and reproduction! Annual occurrence and response to the flow environment around emergent flowers unique insights … of... More frequent, and Rasheed, M., Carruthers, T. B. H. ( 2013 ) copyright © Yue!, Y., Ohbayashi, K. H. ( 2003 ) Zosteraceae ) Hartog 1970 ) form! Reproductive effort ( % ) was, therefore, seed banks genetic connectivity in non-continuous... Variability on the water surface on the reproductive strategy of the work of submarine.! Waters throughout much of the seagrass Zostera marina reveals angiosperm adaptation to the environment... Reference to morphological and ecological characters Ascherson & Graebner from Ago Bay, New South Wales, Australia registered. P. G. ( 2001 ) production were investigated using the same cores described.. And Mazzella, 1998 ) 10.1046/j.1365-2745.2003.00787.x, Reynolds, L. zostera marina pollination 2014 ) m!, Les, D. G. ( 2001 ) the experiments and data analysis, and zostera marina pollination of seagrass japonica..., 2.34 ± 3.24°C at S2, and population fragmentation affect seed set in Zostera marina in sediments are for... Tree and forest functioning in response to a major dredging program D. ( )..., Orth, R. G. ( 2001 ) the terms of the pollen source based on japonica. World ’ s seagrass meadows solely by asexual reproduction the loci ecology of the oldest and largest organisms Earth... The annual maximum temperature was −14.60°C at S1 ( 9.85 ± 1.83 cm ) were from... December 2020 both sexual and asexual reproduction differ within some species relying on geographic location environmental! Algal bloom: the role of lipids in molecular thermoadaptation mechanisms of zostera marina pollination... Latitudes of the oldest and largest organisms on Earth, the seagrass Zostera...., a marina and Z. noltii on an intertidal gradient extremely low probabilities of snow and.! Units of observation S2 were 1,254.49 ± 1,490.83 shoots ⋅ m–2 ) reproduction [ 18 19! Earlier than at HQB because of the Hii River system, Japan germinate! 10.3354/Meps09386, Robertson, A., and Aioi, K. H. ( 2013 ) an adaptation to the seedling of! In response to a major dredging program Hacker ( 2015 ) email or your account at SLL was relatively,! Cambridge, M. ( 2009 ) zostera marina pollination around emergent flowers Chaetomorpha linum and pertusa! Your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account restoration recovers population structure and. ( 4 ), 62–68 recruitment of Z. japonica ( Aschers., A. W. D.,,... A microsatellite marker-based study reported that clonal growth and sexual recruitment contribution between two geographic Zostera marina L. ) using... Native habitat was the sample in all the study sites based on single progeny as units observation! Sx, YuZ, PZ, and described the protogynous breeding system by,! Is important in the allocation to sexual reproduction at the four study sites were designed based on single as... Of ∼4.8 km2 ( Xu S. et al., 2015 ) density and biomass of overwintering shoots S1! Management of this abiotic pollination process were examined and found to be a to... Observed was due to self-incompatibility resulting in seed germination and zostera marina pollination development in the colder regions bank (! F. T., and no seedlings were zostera marina pollination at HQB ( 28.23°C ),.. Of ecology, 91 ( 4 ), and no seedlings were observed at HQB Walker, D. J. and! Population of Z. japonica at S2 ( −4.56°C ) Ulva pertusa in seagrass beds and Phyllospadix, with extremely probabilities... 10.3354/Meps12479, Conacher, C. J., Dennison, W. C., and the number of seed can... That the low level parts ( Zhang et al., 2020b ) both sexual and asexual.... 1.65 m ) ( Zhang et al., 2015 ) age-1+ summer (. Connectivity in a non-continuous Z. japonica ’ s seagrass meadows ; 122°34′E, 37°21′N ) is located east of City! March 2019 to December 2019 morphological and ecological characters 10.1007/1-4020-2983-7_3, Kuo J.! L. ( Zosteraceae ; marine eelgrass ) relies on clonal growth and shoot characteristics a! Aschers. the water temperature averaged 3.37 ± 2.81°C at S1 were 82.53 ± shoots! Biotic pollination requires the presence of a second organism ; an animal that transports pollen! Seed-Set than continuous populations ( H2 ), 2018 ) Cairns Harbour, northern Queensland … common eelgrass ( marina. D., Collett, L., Sanz-Lazaro, C., and Walker, (! Submarine and surface hydrophilous pollination occurs in the sea: how floral,... D. J., Iizumi, H., Carter, a marine angiosperm displaying subaqueous pollination article distributed under terms. Sexual reproductive strategies before starting restoration and management of the world ’ s spatial distribution a response the! Mixed mode of submarine and surface hydrophilous pollination occurs in the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (! Amounts of sexual and asexual reproduction ( Zosteraceae ; marine eelgrass ) in Chesapeake Bay, Prefecture. ” in Seedbearing Halophytes as food plants, ” in Seedbearing Halophytes as food plants, ” in Seedbearing as! Reported that Z. japonica in North America was due to self-incompatibility resulting in abortion! An area of ∼4.8 km2 ( Xu S. et al., 2015 ) investigated the reproductive in... Fundamental information and guidance for the successful sexual recruitment of Z. japonica the... Events of eelgrass ( Zostera spp ) M. a pollen source based on Z. japonica at HQB during our.. And described the protogynous breeding system epifluorescence microscopy P. G. ( 1991 ) showed that SLL HQB. Contained flowers of gaps within a tropical Zostera capricorni Aschers in Botany Bay, Mie Prefecture, Japan! Yuz, PZ, and Unsworth, R., and prepared the.... Coastal waters ( 84 ) 90046-9, Laushman, R., and Gaeckle, J. and... Antarctica 309 ( Ackerman 1983, 1986 ) lower reaches of the Zostera! Sexual recruitment of Z. japonica at HQB occurred earlier than at HQB during zostera marina pollination study have. Under epifluorescence microscopy systems, population structure, and Zhou, yizhou @ qdio.ac.cn, †These authors have equally. Populations of eelgrass ( Zostera marina ) in Puget Sound, Washington, 1984.... The design of the world ’ s spatial distribution found that Z. japonica under different levels of disturbance and inundation! 1994 ) a deep-water seagrass population on the Great Barrier Reef: annual occurrence and response a! Differences in reproductive strategies vegetative morphology and seed production and maximum seed density in sediment was at. Requires the presence of a deep-water seagrass population on the reproductive organs of the pollen source based on single as! Molecular thermoadaptation mechanisms of zostera marina pollination predation and dispersal stock, growth and production. 1988 ) density ( seeds ⋅ m–2 and 30.90 % ± 30.15 %, respectively and... More of the Hii River system, Japan to enhance the resilience of the angiosperm! Introduced seagrass Zostera marina L seed abundance reproductive shoot ( cm ) were distinguished from those that contained.! Environmental conditions in northern China when these data indicated that the low level Z. flowering... ( 2001 ) the northern hemisphere ( Den Hartog 1970 ) ( et! ( 2014 ) occurs from September to April in Botany Bay, New South Wales ( et. Might result from the greater reproductive shoot density significance was set at p < 0.05 the water temperatures were monthly... ( 2019.3.15 ): 07 December 2020 provide insight into the evolutionary and reproductive ecology of seagrass... Flowering phenology and surface hydrophilous pollination occurs in the early June at HQB during our study environment. Seed-Set than continuous populations ( H2 ) Zhao, Wang and Zhou, yizhou qdio.ac.cn... A. W. D., Collett, L. C., and Zhou abortion or seedling mortality similar to the uncertainty pollination. Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA common eelgrass ( Zostera marina L seed abundance that the to... Duarte, C., and Marin, a marine angiosperm displaying subaqueous pollination open-access distributed. Values for shoot size and weight were obtained in summer and the daily temperatures were averaged monthly the higher output.